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 TASK 2: EXERCISE (RUBRIC MODIFIED)

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PostSubject: TASK 2: EXERCISE (RUBRIC MODIFIED)   Sun Jun 01, 2008 3:37 pm

study Read this passage carefully.
Idea Analyze it considering these categories:
- Time continuity (i.e. whether chronology is respected or not)
- Space contiguity (i.e. whether spatial factors follow one another logically)
- Cause-effect relations (i.e. effects are explained in terms of causes)
- Reliance on binary oppositions (i.e. images of cold/hot, beautiful/ugly, etc. permeate the passage)
- Reference (i.e. pronouns are used properly, they have a clear referent, etc.)
- Sentence structure (i.e. there is coherence at sentence length or not)
Question With the data gathered decide whether the passage leans to the metaphoric or to the metonymic pole and say why.


'Best of all, there is the air. Yes. And little by little, I have learned to live inside it. The air and the light, yes, that too, the light that shines on all things and puts them there for my eyes to see. There is the air and the light and this best of all. Excuse me. The air and the light. Yes. When the weather is good, I like to sit by the open window. Sometimes I look out and watch the things below. The street and all the people, the dogs and cars, the bricks of the building across the way. And then there are the times when I close my eyes and just sit there, with the breeze blowing on my face, and the light inside the air, all around me and just beyond my eyes, and the world all red, a beautiful red inside my eyes, with the sun shining on me and my eyes.'


Due Monday 9.


Last edited by Admin on Fri Jun 06, 2008 4:30 pm; edited 1 time in total
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javiers



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PostSubject: Re: TASK 2: EXERCISE (RUBRIC MODIFIED)   Sat Jun 07, 2008 1:25 am

-Time continuity: Chronology is respected since there is no temporal inversion or flashback. The main tense is Present Simple denoting events as a matter of fact with a focus on the situation as a whole, somehow timeless, with no duration or delimitation. The choice of tense makes the descriptions more vivid and prompts the reader to a closer experience. Besides, if we consider the moment of the day described, we can think of the early morning or the late afternoon.

Be careful, flashbacks do not always mean a disruption of time continuity. On the contrary, they may appear there where a justification for a present situation is needed, and even more, they may be the causes of present effects.

-Space contiguity: Spatial factors follow one another logically: from the inside to the outside and then close to the narrator, from parts to more inclusive elements, scenes or views. E.g. the air Arrow inside it Arrow the light Arrow all things Arrow the weather Arrow the open window Arrow the things below Arrow The street and all the people, the dogs and cars, the bricks of the building across the way Arrow just sit there Arrow breeze blowing on my face Arrow the light inside the air, all around me and just beyond my eyes Arrow the world all red Arrow the sun shining on me and my eyes

-Cause-effect relations: The effects on the narrator are explained in terms of cause-effect relations. Many statements can be tested by asking for the reason why the narrator considers something as best, which is later on explained (e.i. “the light because it shines on all things and puts them there for my eyes to see… …the air because there are times that I just sit there, with the breeze blowing… I sit by the open windows because the weather is good…)

- No evidence on binary oppositions: There is a lexical chain associating air and light (warmth= the light inside the air), the weather (when it is good= not cold), all the people, the dogs and cars (probably not winter but autumn or spring), breeze (a light gentle wind), beautiful red (warm colour), sun shining.

- Reference: Although the only instance of “it” is vague (either anaphoric or cataphoric), the reference can somehow be recovered from the context (possibly the pronoun refers to an apartment or a similar building). Other personal pronouns have a clear reference (I, me, my= the experiencer, the narrator; them = all things).The demonstrative pronouns fulfil their deictic function (that too = the light, this= the light).

-Sentence structure: Coherence is built up through a process of inference in most cases. In general, there are many examples of verbal and nominal elisions that are assumed from the immediate linguistic context (as in "(there is) the air and the light" or in “the things below = The street and all the people, the dogs and cars, the bricks of the building across the way). The many uses of “and” create a cumulative effect that plunges the reader into a quick reading pace.

In general, a discrimination should be made as to whether the performance of disfluency and mistakes, such as hesitations and repairs, which seems to threaten the idea that conversation has a grammar, is to be treated as a true mistake or as a conversational feature. Moreover, building up sentences from speech by means of punctuation explicits that, though the fundamental structural unit of grammar is the sentence, it does not realistically exist in conversational language and any transcription may, in some cases, be a bias for analysis: there are no reliable methods for defining sentences in terms of their syntactic form or semantic content in conversation. Finally, many references rely on the immediate context or the shared knowledge of the people involved.


Conclusion:
A great deal of anticipation takes place in the reader’s mind as he or she moves along the text managing to find semantic contiguity among topics, trying to make sense of the utterances as they go. In order to reconstruct meaning, associations are made by a building process from the parts or the features to the whole idea of the situation. The choppy sentences force the reader to find connections and move along different concatenated semantic lines to help understanding. Each word sense is affected by the relationship with other words. The text appears to be a monologue, an inner conversation or reflection.
All the previous facts serve as evidence for a main tilt towards the metonymic pole in the text under analysis.
The metaphoric pole is exploited in the expression ‘the world all red’. Here, instead of an attributive use of the adjective ‘red’, the predicative use comprises the notion of the preceding events and their actual effect on the narrator. Just because the narrator does not choose to say ‘red world’, the predication fulfils its semantic function of bringing new information about the syntagm ‘the world’, bearing in mind the elision of the verb to be in between.


Your choice is well justified. Note that sentence length is totally irregular (short and long sentences): another show of metaphoric leaning.



Last edited by javiers on Sun Jun 08, 2008 9:56 pm; edited 2 times in total
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micaela g



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PostSubject: Re: TASK 2: EXERCISE (RUBRIC MODIFIED)   Sun Jun 08, 2008 7:09 pm

I love you 1- TIME CONTINUITY: this extract is narrated in the present simple. Regarding chronology, it can be followed but there are not time adverbs such as then, after that, first... etc. There are no flashbacks.
2- SPACE CONTIGUITY: spacial factors can be followed logically. They seem to surround the protagonist so we, as readers, feel close to him/her and to the space. For instance, when she mentions the street, the people, the car, the weather...etc.
3- CAUSE- EFFECT RELATION: "When the weather is good, I like to seat by the open window", her sitting by the open window is a result of the weather being good. In fact, the good weather is a cause by which she can feel the air, the light, see the streets and the people, etc.
RELIANCE ON BINARY OPPOSITION: "The breeze blowing on my face". She refers to the AIR that surrounds her.
"And the world all red" may be an image of the sun that is setting, so that is why it has turned red.
"...Beautiful red inside my eyes" is an image of the sun setting and reflecting on her eyes, or maybe she was high as a kite and that is why her eyes were red!! tongue
4- REFERENCE: The deictic word "there" is used throughout the text. The personal pronouns "I", "my", "me" make reference to the protagonist, whereas "them" refers to "all the things".
5- SENTENCE STRUCTURE: There is not much coherence at sentence level. There are mainly noun phrases and lots of cases of verbal and nominal elision.
I love you METONYMIC OR METAPHORIC:
The best example of metaphoric use is "with the sun shinning on me and my eyes". Because of the fact that the whole extract seems a monologue or an inner conversation, I can say that it is an example of metonymic use.

How about sentence length?
Your conclusion is somewhat confusing. Can't a monologue be metaphoric? Revise this please.
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MarianelaB



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PostSubject: Re: TASK 2: EXERCISE (RUBRIC MODIFIED)   Mon Jun 09, 2008 12:07 am

-Time continuity: Chronology is respected .There are no flashbacks or flashforwards.

See comments in javiers's answer.

-Space contiguity: Spatial factors follow one another logically: from the inside (I have learned to live inside it, I like to sit by the open window) to the outside (Sometimes I look out and watch the things below. The street and all the people, the dogs and cars, the bricks of the building across the way.)

-Cause-effect relations: Effects are explained in terms of causes.

Cause
1) The light shines on all things and puts them there for his eyes to see
There are times that he just sits there, with the breeze blowing on his face
2)When the weather is good

Effect
1)The narrator considers the air and the light best
2)He sits by the open windows


There is no reliance on binary opposites


Reference: Pronouns have a clear reference.
The personal pronoun -->I= the narrator
The possesive pronoun -->my (face), my (eyes)= the narrator’s face and eyes
The objective pronoun --> me (the narrator)

There is also use of cataphoric reference
( all things = them, the air= it).
The reference of the demonstrative pronouns is restricted to the context of utterance(that = the light, this= the light).

-Sentence structure: There is a close and clear relationship between sentences There is also coherence at sentence length. The reader is smoothly lead through the ideas contained in the sentences to an understanding of the whole paragraph.


The passage leans on the metonymic pole because one topic leads to the other through their semantic contiguity.

See comments above.
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virginial



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PostSubject: Task 2   Mon Jun 09, 2008 12:23 pm

Time Continuity: Chronology is respected since what is described is a permanent situation, a general state. That is why the Present Simple Tense is used all through the text.

Space Contiguity: Spatial factors follow one another logically. If we consider this text as a description of the place where the writer lives, then we can see that he starts by naming the things he likes inside the house. Then, he continues describing the view from his window.

Cause-effect relations: The writer states that there are some things he considers best, and then he gives reasons for his choices:

The air: because he likes to sit by the open window when the weather is good.
The light: because it shines on all things and puts them there for his eyes to see.

Reliance on binary oppositions: There are no evident binary oppositions. In general, the image the reader gets from the text is related to warmth, light, air, breeze, sun.

Reference: There is only one pronoun that doesn’t have a clear referent inside the text. Let’s consider the following sentence:

And little by little, I have learned to live inside it

In this case, ‘it’ may refer to a house, or a flat (in this respect, ‘it’ has exophoric reference, since no house or flat or any other kind of home is mentioned). But it is also possible that it refers to the air (although the air is not a place ‘to live in’) if we consider the air as something that surrounds us permanently and we have to learn how to live in it.

Every other pronoun in the text has a clear referent. In the following sentence, it is clear that ‘them’ refers back to ‘all the things’, i.e. it has endophoric, cataphoric reference.

“…the light that shines on all things and puts them there for my eyes to see.”

Every first person pronoun or possessive adjective (I, my, me) refers to the writer.

Sentence Structure: There is coherence at sentence length, although some sentences seem rather incomplete, one can follow the writer’s trend of thoughts easily, as if he were just thinking aloud. However, short sentences and long sentences alternate.


Taking all these points into account, it can be stated that this passage leans to the metonymic pole. The development of the text takes place along a semantic contiguity line. Every following utterance complements the previous one. The description begins with reference to the air, then to the light, the things below his window, the street, the people, dogs and cars, the bricks of a building and finally the world.

Good on the whole.
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Belén I



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PostSubject: Re: TASK 2: EXERCISE (RUBRIC MODIFIED)   Mon Jun 09, 2008 1:16 pm

Sentence structure : Coherence is achieved by the clear connection among the short sentences . We also have to highlight the use of “and” as a cohesive device Question which helps to connect ideas between the different sentences. And I am also thinking that as we analyse only a paragraph and not the whole text , it is almost sure that there wiill be coherence and that it is not a big deal.
.

Space Contuinity: there is a change in the point of view, first from the inside where the narrador mentions things Such as the the air, the Light, and the weather that are closely related to him and then, he changes to the outside.
For me, he is always talking about the same items but from different points of view (inside- outside).


Time Continuity: As there are no instances of flashback or flashforward, a chronology developmente of facts is used.

Reference: The use of “I” and “me” refers to the author, and the use of “my” to mention the author’s face and eyes.

Cause - Effect: We can clearly see this relationship when he says for example “When the weather is good, I like to sit by the open window” . The Fact that the weather is good, explains why he likes to sit by the window.


Reliance on binary oppositions: scratch I don’t understand what do I have to write here! Embarassed But I had a look at my classmates’ answers and they all agreed that There is no evidence on binary oppositions, so do I!
Very Happy

See your partners' answers/feedback.
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Adriana A



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PostSubject: Re: TASK 2: EXERCISE (RUBRIC MODIFIED)   Mon Jun 09, 2008 4:25 pm

Like a Star @ heaven •The author uses pronouns properly and with clear referents.
•As for sentence structures, the writer uses a multiplicity of structures: there are complex, compound and simple sentences, there are instances of elation (some sentences only contain the predicate, others only a phrase and there are some which only have a word) and there are lots of instances of existential sentences.
Binary oppositions, in my opinion, only appear implicitly. E. g.: when the author writes ‘the light that shines on all things and puts them there for my eyes to see,’ s/he may want to oppose the idea that the ‘light’ helps to see while ‘darkness’ does not. ‘When the weather is good’ may imply that sometimes the weather is not ( or is bad)
•I don’t think the writer analysis effects with respect to causes. In fact, for me, s/he explains events very subjectively, i.e. how s/he feels things and not how they actually happen in terms of causes ( Question )
•Finally, I do believe time continuity and space contiguity are respected. For me, the former is respected since all the account seems to take place during the morning ‘the sun shining’ and at present time (there are no instances of flashbacks or flash-forwards). As for the latter, I consider the connections the writer does are logical (he moves smoothly from the inside to the outside). I, as reader, could follow what s/he means or what s/he is referring to.
Like a Star @ heaven In my opinion, the passage leans to metonymic pole since topics are developed through contiguity and there’s not even an instance of synonymy, which is a characteristic of the metaphoric pole.

I agree with most of your analysis. However, given the evidence you provide there seems to be at least a sort of in between the metonymic and the metaphoric. Don't you think?
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ArianaR



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PostSubject: Re: TASK 2: EXERCISE (RUBRIC MODIFIED)   Mon Jun 09, 2008 7:56 pm

1- Time continuity: chronology is respected. There is no use of flashback or flashforward. The tense used through out the text is present simple.
2- Space contiguity: spacial factors follow one another logically. We move, as readers, from the inside to the outside[i][i].("...I have learned to live inside it". "I like to sit by the open window". "The street and all the people, the dogs and cars, the bricks of the building across the way").
3-Cause-effect relations: effects are explained in terms of causes. "The light that shines on all things(cause) and puts them there for my eyes to see"(effect);"...when the weather is good(cause), I like to sit by the open window"(effect).
4-Reliance on binary oppositions: there is no use of binary oppositions. On the contrary, the lexical items correspond to words that denote the same meaning, a positive one. "The light that shines" ( light has a positive effect), "weather is good" (warm weather), "breeze blowing" ( a light wind), "a beautiful red" ( a light red)
5- Reference: the pronouns are properly used; they have clear antecedents. "It" refers to "air"; "them" refers to "all things"; "me", "my" and "I" refers to the protagonist.
6-Sentence structure: there is a combination of sentence lenhg. A sentence such as: " There is the air and the light and this best of all..", followed by a very short one: "Excuse me". In the same way,"The air and the light..." followed by an even shorter sentence: "Yes", and at the end of the fragment there is a very long sentence in which many thing are enumerated to produce a sense of continuity in the reader.
Metaphoric or to the metonymic pole: the passage leans to a metonymic pole, in which topics are developed in a semantic contiguity line.

I don't quite get what you mean by "semantic contiguity line". Rest seems OK.
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ArianaR



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PostSubject: Re: TASK 2: EXERCISE (RUBRIC MODIFIED)   Mon Jun 09, 2008 8:03 pm

SORRY...I´VE MADE, AGAIN, SOME MISTAKES! I´LL HAVE TO REVISE MY TYPING MORE CAREFULLY NEXT TIME!

Don't worry, I haven't been checking language for these tasks.
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elianaa



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PostSubject: Re: TASK 2: EXERCISE (RUBRIC MODIFIED)   Wed Jun 11, 2008 8:24 pm

TIME CONTINUITY: Chronology is respected. Throughout the text, the main verb tense used is the present simple. The use of this tense is coherent with the fact that the text is purely a description of something that the writer experiences every day or almost every day.
The text is tímeless (no specific evidence of how long it lasts) and there is no reference to past or future events.
The adjective “red” gives us a clue that the writer may be describing either the dawn or the disk.

SPACE CONTIGUITY: The spatial factors follow one another logically since the narrator describes the scene from the same perspective (physical point) all the time: his/her description moves from inside the house or apartment to outside, and then back inside again:
•“…by the open window…I look out and watch the things below. The streets and all the people, the dogs and cars, the bricks of the building across the way.”
•“…when I close my eyes and just sit there, with the breeze…”

CAUSE-EFFECT RELATIONS: The effects are explained in terms of cause as follows:
1-Cause: the light.
Effect: it shines on all things and puts them there for my eyes to see.

2-Cause: the weather is good.
Effect: I like to sit by the open window. Sometimes I look out and watch the things below.

3-Cause: the air.
Effect: I close my eyes and just sit there, with the breeze blowing on my face.

RELIANCE ON BINARY OPPOSITIONS: There is no evidence of binary oppositions.

REFERENCE: Some pronouns have a clear referent while others do not.
*“And little by little, I have learned to live inside IT.”: “it” does not have an explicit referent. We need to deduce it from the context. It may refer to the apartment or house he/she lives in.
*“The air and the light, yes, THAT too.”: “that” has a clear referent: the light.
*“…the light that shines on all things and puts THEM there for my eyes to see.”: “them” clearly refers to “all things”.
*“There is the air and the light and THIS best of all.”: in this case, we have no clear evidence whether “this” refers to “light” or “air”. Because of its proximity, we may deduce it refers to “light”.
*“…when I close my eyes and just sit THERE…”: “there” does not have a clear referent. We may deduce it is “a place next to the window”.
There is use of pronouns referring to the first person: “I”, “me” and “my” clearly refer to the narrator.

SENTENCE STRUCTURE: * Short sentences are intermingled with long sentences.
* Sentences are speech-like:
1- The writer interrupts and corrects himself/herself, as in “There is the air and the light and this best of all. Excuse me. The air and the light. Yes.”
2- Some sentences are not grammatically complete, as in “The air and the light.”
3- There is also instances of afterthought, as in “There and the light, yes, that too, the light…”


For all this analysis, we can state that the passage leans on the metonymic pole because one topic leads to the other through their semantic contiguity.

Don't quite get what you mean by semantic contiguity. Rest seems OK.
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