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 TASK 1: TWO ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE AND TWO TYPES OF APHASIC DISTURBANCES

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PostSubject: TASK 1: TWO ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE AND TWO TYPES OF APHASIC DISTURBANCES   Sun Jun 01, 2008 3:25 pm

0 - Read the fragments from this chapter by Jakobson.

1 - State two reasons (with quotes from the text) indicating that Jakobson's theory of language is structuralist.

2 - Describe the metaphoric pole of language using these terms: PARADIGM - SIMILARITY - SELECTION - SUBSTITUTION. Include all the terms in a coherent paragraph defining the pole.

3 - Do the same with the metonymic pole, using these terms: SYNTAGM - CONTIGUITY - COMBINATION - DELETION.

NB: The terms indicated may not appear as such in Jakobson's text but you should be able to derive them from the texts analyzed so far.

Due Friday 6.
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PostSubject: Re: TASK 1: TWO ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE AND TWO TYPES OF APHASIC DISTURBANCES   Sat Jun 07, 2008 6:36 pm

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PostSubject: Re: TASK 1: TWO ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE AND TWO TYPES OF APHASIC DISTURBANCES   Fri Jun 13, 2008 12:42 am

javiers wrote:
1) Jakobson concentrates on how the system of signs (organization) fulfils the functions of language during a speech event or, to put it another way, how language arranges (orients) its units to make communication possible through different functions.

“…there exists a unity of language, but this over-all code represents a system of interconnected subcodes; each language encompasses several concurrent patterns which are each characterized by a different function.”

Although he focuses on the poetic function, he sees it as a feature not only of verbal art or the science of language, but of the whole theory of signs as well since, as he puts it, “…language shares many properties with some other systems of signs or even with all of them.”

His study of language is synchronic:
“Synchronic poetics, like synchronic linguistics, is not to be confused with statics; any stage discriminates between more conservative and more innovatory forms. Any contemporary stage is experienced in its temporal dynamics, and, on the other hand, the historical approach both in poetics and in linguistics is concerned not only with changes but also with continuous, enduring, static factors. A thoroughly comprehensive historical poetics or history of language is a superstructure to be built on a series of successive synchronic descriptions.”

Finally, his view on how language organizes itself poses a dichotomy similar to Saussure’s syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations:

“…we must recall the two basic modes of arrangement used in verbal behaviour, selection and combination.” […].“The selection is produced on the base of equivalence, similarity and dissimilarity, synonymity and antonymity, while the combination, the build up of the sequence, is based on contiguity. The poetic function projects the principle of equivalence from the axis of selection into the axis of combination. Equivalence is promoted to the constitutive device of the sequence.”

Good! (Two items would've done just fine; Careful with rubrics!)

2) The metaphoric pole is the semantic axis along which a PARADIGM can relate to another one out of their SIMILARITY. The positional semantic similarity allows the replacement of one sign in terms of the other through a process of SELECTION and consequent SUBSTITUTION.

You probably meant "elements within a paradigm can relate ...". Rest is OK.

3) The metonymic pole is the semantic axis along which a SYNTAGM can relate to another one out of their CONTIGUITY. The positional semantic contiguity allows the concatenation of one sign in terms of the neighbouring ones through a process of COMBINATION and consequent DELETION of all the other contextual possibilities.
OK.
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PostSubject: Re: TASK 1: TWO ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE AND TWO TYPES OF APHASIC DISTURBANCES   Fri Jun 13, 2008 12:46 am

virginial wrote:
1) Jakobson’s Structuralist view can be distinguished in these quotations (among others):

“The bipolar structure of language (or other semiotic systems) and, in aphasia, the fixation on one of these poles to the exclusion of the other require systematic comparative study.”

This quotation shows that Jakobson sees language as a structure, in this case as a bipolar structure, which requires a systematic comparative study.

“In manipulating these two kinds of connection (similarity and contiguity) in both their aspects (positional and semantic) - select¬ing, combining, and ranking them - an individual exhibits his personal style, his verbal predilections and preferences.”

What is stated here is the fact that language is the result of manipulating connections and relations between lexemes.

Very good.


2) The METAPHORIC POLE OF LANGUAGE is the SIMILARITY that can be found between topics, i.e. one topic leads to the other by means of similarity. These topics hold PARADIGMATIC relations, since they operate in absentia. The presence of one of them requieres the absence of the other. One of them must be SELECTED and the other SUBSTITUTED.

3) The METONIMYC POLE OF LANGUAGE is the CONTIGUITY that can be found between topics, i.e. one topic leads to the other by means of contiguity. These topics hold SYNTAGMATIC relations, since they operate in presentia. They can be COMBINED, complemented, while other possibilities are DELETED.

See javiers's comments and feedback.
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PostSubject: Re: TASK 1: TWO ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE AND TWO TYPES OF APHASIC DISTURBANCES   Fri Jun 13, 2008 12:48 am

Adriana A wrote:
1.- That Jakobson is a structuralist is shown throughout the text. In the sentence: “In manipulating these two kinds of connection (similarity and contiguity) in both their aspects (positional and semantic) –selecting, combining, and ranking them- an individual exhibits his personal style, his verbal predilections and preferences” Jakobson shows that he is taking into account the mental processes an individual uses when establishing social relationships. Besides, the idea of manipulation suggests that what the speaker chooses in order to build up that relationship are structures.
“The dichotomy discussed here appears to be of primal significance and consequence for all vernal behaviour and for human behaviour in general.” I think that the key term here is: dichotomy, since as Saussure and Benveniste also put it everything in language has to be defined through dichotomies or dualities. Throughout the text, Jakobson uses dichotomies to define the terms he is interested in.

Good answer!

2.- The metaphoric pole of language is one way to develop a discourse through the topics’ SIMILARITY. This pole needs that linguistic signs hold PARADIGMATIC relationships, in other words: linguistic signs operate in absentia. This implies that choosing one sign excludes the use of all the other virtually present options. So, we -as users of the language- are putting into practice the processes of SELECTION and SUBSTITUTION when deciding for a particular sign.
3.- Another way to organize discourse, according to Jakobson, is by the metonymic way. This implies the connection of SYNTAGMS through their CONTIGUITY. As these syntagms operates in presentia, they have to be in COMBINATION. At the same time, when we choose which ones to use, we are making several DELETIONS, ie: leaving out those not selected.
Neutral
See javiers's answer and my feedback on it. drunken
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PostSubject: Re: TASK 1: TWO ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE AND TWO TYPES OF APHASIC DISTURBANCES   Fri Jun 13, 2008 12:49 am

MarianelaB wrote:
1) Jakobson’s theory of language is structuralist because:

- Structuralists believe that every system has a structure

“The bipolar structure of language (or other semiotic systems) and, in aphasia, the fixation on one of these poles to the exclusion of the other require systematic comparative study.”

- The structure is what determines the position of each element of a whole

“In manipulating these two kinds of connection (similarity and contiguity) in both their aspects (positional and semantic) - select¬ing, combining, and ranking them - an individual exhibits his personal style, his verbal predilections and preferences.”


2) The metaphoric pole is the semantic line along which a PARADIGM can relate to another in terms of SIMILARITY. The semantic similarity allows one to be replaced by the other through a process of SELECTION on the base of equivalence, similarity and dissimilarity, synonymity or antonymity and subsequent SUBSTITUTION.

3) The metonymic pole is the semantic line along which a SYNTAGM can relate to another in terms of CONTIGUITY. The semantic contiguity allows the build up of the sequence through a process of COMBINATION and the subsequent DELETION of other possible contextual answers

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PostSubject: Re: TASK 1: TWO ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE AND TWO TYPES OF APHASIC DISTURBANCES   Fri Jun 13, 2008 12:51 am

MarinaP wrote:
1)
“The dichotomy discussed here appears to be of primal significance and consequence for all verbal behavior and for human behavior in general”.

Benveniste and Saussure (two of the most important Structuralists) based their theories of language and Linguistics on pairs of concepts or dichotomies. So did Jakobson along the text.


“The bipolar structure of language (or other semiotic systems) and, in aphasia, the fixation on one of these poles to the exclusion of the other require systematic comparative study.”

Structuralists believe that the human mind generates underlying structures to organize rules and units into meaningful systems. Jakobson clearly states in this quotation that he believes that language is a structure (in his particular case, a bipolar one).


2) The metaphoric pole is the axis in which any Paradigm is replaced by others in terms of SIMILARITY. Semantic Similarity allows the SELECTION of a particular PARADIGM so as to be SUBSTITUTED if necessary. This type of relation operates in absentia.

3) The metonymic pole is the axis in which SYNTAGMS are combined in terms of CONTIGUITY. Semantic Contiguity allows the COMBINATION and DELETION of syntagms as items follow a linear sequence, therefore, operating in presentia.

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PostSubject: Re: TASK 1: TWO ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE AND TWO TYPES OF APHASIC DISTURBANCES   Fri Jun 13, 2008 12:53 am

ArianaR wrote:
1- The bipolar structure of language (or other semiotic systems) and, in aphasia, the fixation on one of these poles to the exclusion of the other require systematic comparative study.
The dichotomy discussed here appears to be of primal significance and consequence for all verbal behavior and for human behavior in general.

Jackobson considers the language a system of bipolar structures.
He, as other structuralists (Saussure and Benveniste), describes the language using dichotomies: substitutive – predicative, metonymic- metaphoric poles, similarity- contiguity.

2- The metaphoric pole takes place in a semantic line in which the signs of a paradigm are related according to similarity. Through a process of selection and a consequent substitution, they can be replaced.

3- The metonymic pole takes place in a semantic line in which the signs of a syntagm are related according to contiguity. Through a process of combination and consequent deletion, they can be complemented.

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PostSubject: Re: TASK 1: TWO ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE AND TWO TYPES OF APHASIC DISTURBANCES   Fri Jun 13, 2008 12:54 am

julietaf wrote:
1) Jakobson’s theory of language is structuralist because:

a)- he considers language as self-regulating system, a structure, as stated in the following quote.

“The bipolar structure of language (or other semiotic systems) and, in aphasia, the fixation on one of these poles to the exclusion of the other require systematic comparative study.”
b) He agrees that the elements in a structure are defined by their relationship to the other elementsas shown in this quote

“In manipulating these two kinds of connection (similarity and contiguity) in both their aspects (positional and semantic) - select¬ing, combining, and ranking them ...”

2) the METAPHORIC POLE of language includes those functions governed by the principle of SIMILARITY, that is to say the SELECTION and SUBSTITUTION of elements in a PARADIGM according to their similarity.

3) the METONYMIC POLE of language includes those functions governed by the principle of CONTIGUITY. The elements or SYNTAGMS are in COMBINATION along a horizontal axis, and this implies the DELETION of the other possibilities.

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PostSubject: Re: TASK 1: TWO ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE AND TWO TYPES OF APHASIC DISTURBANCES   Fri Jun 13, 2008 12:55 am

elianaa wrote:
1- FIRST REASON: The dichotomy that Jakobson poses as SUBSTITUTIVE/PREDICATIVE reactions (related to similarity/contiguity, respectively) resembles Saussure´s dichotomy of PARADIGMATIC/SYNTAGMATIC relationships between linguistic signs. In this dichotomy, Saussure states that words act in substitution, in a vertical axe (PARADIGMATIC relationship) and/or words come out one by one; they form a chain, by which one unit is linked to the next in a horizontal line (SYNTAGMATIC relationship).

“The development of a discourse may take place along two different semantic lines: one topic may lead to another either through their similarity or through their contiguity”

“…the response is intended either as a substitute for, or as a complement to, the stimulus. In the latter case, the stimulus and the response together form a proper syntactic construction, most usually a sentence. These two types of reaction have been labeled SUBSTITUTIVE and PREDICATIVE.”

SECOND REASON: Jakobson´s view of language as a structure resembles Saussure´s. Saussure insisted that language is not a thing, a substance, but a form, a structure, a system.

“The bipolar STRUCTURE of language (…) requires systematic comparative study.”

2- The METAPHORIC POLE can be defined as the semantic process through which a PARADIGM is associated to another by means of SIMILARITY. Through a process of SELECTION, a paradigm will be chosen instead of another (since they have the capacity to replace one another), for what that paradigm will act in SUBSTIUTION of the other one.

3- The METONYMIC POLE can be defined as the semantic process through which two or more SYNTAGMS act together to form a proper syntactic construction by means of CONTIGUITY. This syntactic construction is possible since the syntagms act in COMBINATION, requiring the DELETION of any other syntagms, which will exhibit the verbal preferences of an individual.

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PostSubject: Re: TASK 1: TWO ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE AND TWO TYPES OF APHASIC DISTURBANCES   Fri Jun 13, 2008 12:56 am

florenciaonti wrote:
1.A. Jakobson’s concepts of Metaphoric and Metonymic poles of language are linked with Saussure’s concepts of syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations and as Saussure is considered the father of structuralism, it can be concluded that Jakobson's ideas are structuralist.

“The development of a discourse may take place along two differ¬ent semantic lines: one topic may lead to another either through their similarity or through their contiguity. The METAPHORIC way would be the most appropriate term for the first case and the METONYMIC way for the second, since they find their most condensed expression in metaphor and metonymy respectively.”

B. He mentions “the structure of language” explicitly and as a structuralist he is concerned with the analysis of the intimate connection between units and rules of the language system.

“The bipolar structure of language (or other semiotic systems) and, in aphasia, the fixation on one of these poles to the exclusion of the other require systematic comparative study.”

2. Metaphoric pole: One of the basic ways of thought reflected in language based upon SUBSTITUTION. The individual makes a SELECTION (based on SIMILARITY) from the corresponding PARADIGM and substitutes a unit by another to show his verbal predictions.

3. Metonymic pole: One of the basic ways of thought reflected in language based upon COMBINATION and CONTIGUITY. The individual selects a SYNTAGM to combine it others along a horizontal axis making a DELETION of the syntagms he hasn’t chosen.

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