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 TASK 1: LINGUISTICS AND POETICS

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PostSubject: TASK 1: LINGUISTICS AND POETICS   Tue May 27, 2008 11:40 am

Arrow Read "Linguistics and Poetics" (as featured in the blog) once and say if these statements are TRUE or FALSE:

1 - The first paragraph summarizes Jakobson's perspective on language.
2 - If the main objective is to study Jakobson's views on language, the tenth paragraph may be skipped.
3 - One of the central terms to Jakobson's theory is the referent.
4 - The term 'conative' is constituted by the morphemes 'co-' (meaning together) and 'native' (meaning natural).
5 - The last paragraph presents Jakobson's conclusion in terms of what language is.

For those questions that you consider false, write the correct statements and explain why the original ones were false.

Please post your answers and comments below.

To follow the class sequence you should do this task before Wednesday evening, when Task 2 will be set.
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javiers



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PostSubject: Javier Sosa's answer to the guide on "Linguistics and Poetics" by Jakobson.   Wed May 28, 2008 11:10 am

1- False. Jakobson's perspective on language is summarized in the 9th paragraph. There, he establishes a communicative framework and defines its factors. This is complemented in the following paragraphs with further explanations of the functions of language underlying each act of verbal communication.

2- False The 10th paragraph cannot be skipped since it reveals Jakobson's language functions and their relevance for any speech event. After this discussion he will specify why the poetic function cannot be thought of as exclusive of a particular language field.

3- True.

4- False. "Conative" is an adjective deriving from the noun "conation", which comes from the Latin "conatio" and means "act of attempting", from "conari", "to attempt". Thus, the word is not built up from "co-" and "native" as morphemes.

5- False. Jakobson's conclusion of language nature is stated in the 24th paragraph where he explains the two basic ways of organization in verbal behaviour: SELECTION and COMBINATION, the former produced out of equivalence, similarity and dissimilarity, and/or synonymity and antonymity, the latter produced out of contiguity.
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virginial



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PostSubject: Task 1   Wed May 28, 2008 1:23 pm

1 – T

2 – F. If the main objective is to study Jacobson’s views on language, language must be considered in all of its functions and in all of its constituitive factors in any speech event. Therefore, the tenth paragraph (which deals with these aspects) cannot be skipped.

3 – F. The term ‘referent’ is not central in his theory, since he considers it ambiguous and chooses to use the term ‘context’ instead.

4 – F. As defined in the Merrian Webster Online Dictionary, the adjective ‘conative’ comes from the Latin conation-, conatio: act of attempting, from the verb conari: to attempt. It refers to an inclination (as an instinct, a drive, a wish, or a craving) to act purposefully. In Linguistics the term refers to the attempt to modify the behaviour of the addressee. Therefore, ‘conative’ is not made up of the morphemes co- and –native. Moreover, the author does not mention the morphology of the word in the text.

5 – F. The last paragraph presents Jacobson’ conclusion in terms of one of the functions of language: the Poetic function.
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Belén I



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PostSubject: Re: TASK 1: LINGUISTICS AND POETICS   Wed May 28, 2008 2:12 pm

1- FALSE. it does not summarize his perspective of language, parag 10th does. The first one is an introduction to his point of view as regards poetics

2- FALSE. The tenth paragraph cannot be skipped since it deals with the functions of language wich Jakobson considers important.

3- FALSE. The term "referent" is not his central one. it is mentioned as one of language functions, but when mentioning "context", so I think that would be the central term for him.

4- FALSE. The word conative is latin, and it derives from conation-, conatio: act of attempting, from the verb conari: to attempt. It refers to an inclination (as an instinct, a drive, a wish, or a craving) to act purposefully. Besides, its constitution is not mentioned.

5- FALSE - It is not a conclusion of what language is. (For me), it is related to the introduction which talks about "poetics".

Neutral
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MarinaP



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PostSubject: Linguistics and Poetics task   Wed May 28, 2008 2:42 pm

1) True

2) False. The tenth paragraph cannot be skipped since it explains how the language functions and all its constitutive factors are articulated in any speech event.

3) False. As Jackobson claims that the term 'referent' is ambiguous he chooses the word 'context'.

4) False. According to the Merriam Webster's dictionary, 'conative', used as an adjective, derives from the Latin word 'conation', which means "act of attempting", from the verb 'connari' (to attempt)- Besides, the author does not include a morphological explanation of the word in the text.

5) False. The last paragraph presents Jackobson's conclusion in terms of what Poetics is.
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Adriana A



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PostSubject: Re: TASK 1: LINGUISTICS AND POETICS   Wed May 28, 2008 2:46 pm

1.- False: I do not believe that the first paragraph summarizes Jakobson’ s perspective on language. In my opinion, he is using this paragraph to introduce the main topic of his essay: poetics. In this way, he narrows the scope by selecting one function (the poetic whose focus is the message) out of the six existing basic functions of verbal communication (emotive, referential, phatic, metalingual and conative are the other five).

2.- False: It would have non-sense to skip the tenth paragraph since it is essential to understand the author’s views on language. This key paragraph introduces all the constitutive factors interacting in “any act of verbal communication”. Besides, the rest of the essay expands all these concepts relating them with their corresponding functions.

3.- False: Although Jakobson mentions the lexeme 'referent', he states that it is rather 'ambiguous' and suggests 'context' which is, according to him, clearer. Thus, I do not think it is a central term in his theory.

4.- False: As my classmates already explained, the dictionary does not provide the meaning of conative in terms of suffixation (in other words, does not separate prefix and root). Furthermore, the writer does not specify or analyse the lexeme’s morphology.

5.- False: The last paragraph summarizes what he has stated all through the essay, that is the characteristics of the poetic function.
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MarianelaB



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PostSubject: Re: TASK 1: LINGUISTICS AND POETICS   Wed May 28, 2008 2:50 pm

1 - The first paragraph summarizes Jakobson's perspective on language. T

2 - If the main objective is to study Jakobson's views on language, the tenth paragraph may be skipped. F

According to Jakobson, language must be investigated in all the variety of its functions. Before discussing the poetic function we must define its place among the other functions of language. An outline of these functions demands a concise survey of the constitutive factors in any speech event, in any act of verbal communication


3 - One of the central terms to Jakobson's theory is the referent. F
The ADDRESSER sends a MESSAGE to the ADDRESSEE. To be operative the message requires a CONTEXT referred to (‘referent’ in another, somewhat ambiguous, nomenclature)

4 - The term 'conative' is constituted by the morphemes 'co-' (meaning together) and 'native' (meaning natural). F

According to the Merriam Webster’s dictionary,conative, used as an adjective, derives from conation(Latin) which means “act of attempting”, from the verb connari( to attempt). The author does not even refer to the morphology of the term in the text

5 - The last paragraph presents Jakobson's conclusion in terms of what language is. F

The last paragraph presents Jakobson's conclusion in terms of what Poetics is
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ValeriaF



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PostSubject: Re: TASK 1: LINGUISTICS AND POETICS   Wed May 28, 2008 3:52 pm

1) False - In the first paragraph, Jakobson introduces the concept of poetics and its relation to the linguistic field. It is not until the ninth paragraph that he develops his perspective on language. There he incorporates other concepts to the structuralist view, “...there exists a unity of language, but this over-all concept represents a system of interconnected subcodes; each language encompasses several concurrent patterns which are each characterized by a different function.”

2) False - The tenth paragraph is of vital importance in defining Jakobson’s view on language since he discusses in more detail the idea of the different functions of language and the constitutive factors needed for a speech act or any verbal act of communication to take place.

3) False - Roman Jakobson proposed a model of interpersonal verbal communication and highlighted the importance of the codes and social contexts involved. As Jakobson says: “The verbal structure of a message depends primarily on the predominant function. But even though a set toward the referent, an orientation toward the CONTEXT (...) is the leading task of numerous messages...” In other words, Jakobson demonstrates that messages cannot be isolated from constitutive contextual factors.

4) False - The word “Conative” is an adjective derived from the noun “Conation” which, according to Merriam Webster online, means: “an inclination (as an instinct, a drive, a wish, or a craving) to act purposefully.” (Etymology: Latin conation-, conatio act of attempting, from conari to attempt). By this using this term, Jakobson means that a message oriented to the “addressee” will have a “Conative Functioni.e an intention or purpose. E.g.: If someone says to another person “The phone is ringing” (indirect imperative) the “Conative Function” is that the addressee of that message answers the phone.

5) False - What Jakobson does in his last paragraph is to give an overall conclusion about the poetic function of language, but he does not refer to language in general.
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micaela g



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PostSubject: Re: TASK 1: LINGUISTICS AND POETICS   Wed May 28, 2008 5:26 pm

1-False. In the first paragraph, Jakobson focused on verbal language but he does not mention written language. He only states that poetics has the most important place in literary studies.
2-False. The tenth paragraph cannot be skipped because the author makes a point on how language works. Jakobson mentions the addresser, the addressee and the factors among them such as content, code, contact and message.
3-False. He mentions a REFERENTIAL or cognitive function that serves a leading task of numerous messages. It is related to the content of the messages between addresser and addressee.
4-False. This lexeme stands on its own; it has a different meaning that cannot be found by looking at CO- and NATIVE in isolation.
5-False. Jakobson concludes his article focusing on poetry. He does not say what language is.
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julietaf



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PostSubject: Task 1 - linguistics and poetics   Wed May 28, 2008 5:31 pm

1- False.- In the first paragraph Jakobson introduces the notion of poetics and what its study entails. He summarizes his perspective in the ninth paragraph.
2- False.- The 10th paragraph cannot be skipped. Jakobsons says that language must be investigate in all its functions. If we want to study Jakobson’s views on language we must be acquainted with all the constituve factors of verbal communication, which are explained in this paragraph..
3- False.- He uses the word CONTEXT because he considers the word “referent” ambiguous.
4- False.- The author does not refer to the morphology or ethimology of the word. According to Merriam Webster’s Dictionary “conative” derives from Latin “conari” (to attempt). The purpose of a message with conative function is to influence the one receiving it (adressee).
5- False.- In the last paragraph the author maskes a distinction between the study of poetics and the poetic function in itself, that can be found not inly in poetry but also outside it .
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elianaa



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PostSubject: Re: TASK 1: LINGUISTICS AND POETICS   Wed May 28, 2008 6:16 pm

1- False. In the first paragraph, Jakobson states that poetics is a function of language. Jakobson´s perspective of language is explained in the ninth paragraph.
2- False. The tenth paragraph cannot be skipped since it is in that paragraph that Jakobson discusses the different functions of language and the constitutive factors in any speech event, in any act of verbal communication.
3- False. According to Jakobson, "referent" is not one of the central concepts. Since he considers it ambiguous, he opts for the term "context".
4- False. "Conative" is an adjective that derives from the noun "conatious" ( an inclination [as an instinct, a drive, a wish, or a craving] to act purposefully).
5- False. In the last paragraph, Jakobson restates that Poetics is one of the functions of language, and by stating "...the analysis of verse is entirely within the competence of poetics...", he narrows the scope and does not focus on language in general.
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GustavoP



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PostSubject: Re: TASK 1: LINGUISTICS AND POETICS   Wed May 28, 2008 6:30 pm

1) False. In the opening paragraph, Jakobson only introduces the notion of poetics in relationship to Linguistics and makes a strong case of this concept as having a major role in Literary Studies.

2) False. Paragraph 10 cannot, under no circumstances, be skipped. In this paragraph, he provides us with the functions necessary for any speech act to take place. This ideas are to be developed and elaborated in the following paragraphs.

3) True.

4) False. The etymology of the term "conative" is related to the Latin root conor/conari which mainly means "to try". I do believe Jakobson makes use of this term so as to clarify a clear addresser's intention when attempting to send a message to the addressee.

5) False. The last paragraph presents a conclusion of what poetics is and how it should be conceived within and outside the scope of poetry.
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florenciaonti



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PostSubject: Re: TASK 1: LINGUISTICS AND POETICS   Wed May 28, 2008 9:43 pm

1- False. The first paragraph summarizes Jacobson’s perspective on poetics. This paragraph is about poetics and states its subject of study.

2- False. If the main objective is to study Jacobson’s views on language, the tenth paragraph should be read. He argues that language must be investigated in all its functions and to do so a survey of the constitutive factors in any speech event must be taken into account. In this paragraph such factors are explained.

3- False. One of the central terms to Jacobson’s theory is the context. He mentions that to be operative the message requires a context referred to (‘referent’ in another, somewhat ambiguous nomenclature).

4- True

5- False. The last paragraph presents Jacobson’s conclusion in terms of what poetics is. In this paragraph Jacobson defines poetics as that part of linguistics which treats the poetic function in its relationship to the others functions of language.
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PostSubject: ANSWERS   Wed May 28, 2008 10:30 pm

All of the statements were, in fact, FALSE. Most of the corrections you've made were quite right. Good for you! Very Happy

The task will remain unlocked till Thursday 29, 9 pm in case you have any further questions. If not, you can just move on to TASK 2. See you there!
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VTrinidad



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PostSubject: Task I- Linguistics and Poetics   Wed May 28, 2008 11:17 pm

1- False. He states his perspective of Poetics related to Linguistics.
2- False. Paragraph Nº10 will give us some theoretical/background info that allow us to properly understand the subsequent paragraphs in the article. If we skip it, there are fewer chances for us to get a deep understanding of some the concepts that are expanded.
3-True
4-False. Conative derives from Latin -conatio- meaning effort, to try. Broadly, it refers to the aspect of mental processes or behavior directed toward action or change and including impulse, desire, volition, and striving.
5- True
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JulietaGrameg



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PostSubject: Re: TASK 1: LINGUISTICS AND POETICS   Wed May 28, 2008 11:23 pm

1- False. In the 1st. paragraph, Jakobson makes an introduction of Poetics and of its relation to Linguistics.

2- False. The 10th paragraph cannot be skipped, because it's essential to understand the different functions a message may convey.

3- For me it was true, but Daniel has already revealed the answer, and it's false pale . However, I don't know how to justify it.

4- False. The term "conative" is related to "cognition", i.e with mental processes. It's defined as "The conscious tendency to act (...) aligned with cognition and affection" (http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/cgi-bin/omd?conation)

5- False. In the last paragraph, the author restates the ideas developed in the first one. No references to what language is for him are made.
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RCamila



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PostSubject: Re: TASK 1: LINGUISTICS AND POETICS   Thu May 29, 2008 12:21 am

1- F The first paragraph deals with the connection between literature and language as being connected by Jakobson’s poetic function. However, language for Jakobson is defined by all the 6 elements in the act of communication: addresser, addressee, context, message, contact, code.
2- F The tenth paragraph introduces Jakobson’s views of language. Before analyzing the different functions of language in detail, the author introduces the constitutive factors in any speech event which will later be essential to determine the other functions of language.
3- T
4- F Conative is an adjective. The noun conation derives from Latin conatio, meaning the act of attempting. The word means “an inclination to act purposefully” (*), denoting how the addressee is affected by the message he receives.
5- F The last paragraph presents a conclusion of what constitutes poetics -being only one component of language.

(*) Source: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/conation
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ArianaR



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PostSubject: Re: TASK 1: LINGUISTICS AND POETICS   Thu May 29, 2008 10:00 pm

1- F. He present the poetic function among other functions of language and its relation to linguistics.
2- F. The tenth paragraph shouldn´t be skipped because it refers to the constitutive factors of speech act.
3- T. Although he considers the term referent ambiguous, he refers to it as one of the three functions of language (context).
4- F. According to Merriam Websters´dictionary, "conative" derives from "conation" that means "act of attempting". So, it´s not constituted by the morphemes "co" and "native".
5-F. Jackobson presents his conclusion in terms of what poetis is and not in terms of what languageis. He concludes that the former, as part of linguistics, deals with the poetic function not only in poetry, but also in other contexts.
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