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 02) Act of speech

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PostSubject: 02) Act of speech   Sat Oct 11, 2008 2:20 pm

Look at the definition Halliday provides on page 142. I'd like you to reflect particularly on the idea of selection of options. Which linguistic theory relates to this?

Note: Same as the topic Section I.
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ValeriaF



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PostSubject: Re: 02) Act of speech   Sun Oct 12, 2008 11:30 pm

Halliday, MAK(page 142) "...act of speech...a simultaneous selection from among a large number of interrelated options." In my humble opinion, this relates to Saussure's paradigmatic and syntagmatic relations. Saussure explains in his theory that paradigmatic relations refer to the possible combinations of signifiers. In other words, the language user will need to decide which signs from the system of language to use, according to the context, situation, people involved, etc. flower


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PostSubject: Re: 02) Act of speech   Mon Oct 13, 2008 2:27 am

Maybe you should explain that a little further. As is, I can't quite see how connected they are here. No
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Adriana A



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PostSubject: Re: 02) Act of speech   Tue Oct 14, 2008 12:26 pm

Again, I agree with Vale!!
Halliday says “an act of speech [is regarded] as a simultaneous selection from among a large number of interrelated options. These options represent the ‘meaning potential’ of language.” I truly believe that this quotation can account for the paradigmatic relationship that Saussure states linguistic signs hold. It is the language user who selects among all the lexemes which operate in absentia and are available in the vertical axe. Widdowson uses the same idea as Halliday when asserting that "Elements which have the same potential for appearance in the same environment in this way are said to be in paradigmatic relationship.”

Good points. We should note, however, that these interrelated options do not exclusively mean the lexical level, options may also include broader blocks such as text types, for example.
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elianaa



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PostSubject: Re: 02) Act of speech   Wed Oct 15, 2008 12:50 am

I totally agree with the girls, but I also found a relation to:

*Bakhtin, when he states: "When we select a particular type of sentence, we do so not for the sentence itself; but out of consideration for what we wish to express with this one given sentence. We select the type of sentence from the standpoint of the whole utterance, which is transmitted in advance to our speech imagination and which determines our choice."

*Benveniste, when he states: "(...)la enunciación da las condiciones necesarias para las grandes funciones sintácticas. No bien el enunciador se sirve de la lengua para influir de algún modo sobre el comportamiento del alocutario, dispone para ello un aparato de funciones."

Right. Seeing these ideas together we easily deduce the three linguists coincide in this functional perspective.
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virginial



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PostSubject: Re: 02) Act of speech   Wed Oct 15, 2008 2:30 pm

If we have to reflect particularly on the idea of SELECTION of options, I would say that the notion of Act of Speech as it is stated here is related to Saussure’s theory – more specifically his notion of PARADIGMATIC relations.

Yes, that's what Adriana has discussed previously.
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Belén I



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PostSubject: Re: 02) Act of speech   Thu Oct 16, 2008 12:33 pm

As the girls have already said, I also believe that the linguistic theory that relates to Halliday`s definition is structuralism.
As Adriana stated, the selection of options refers to the speaker `s selection of lexemes in the vertital axe ( paradigmatic relationship) . Besides, when Halliday says in that same definition : “interrelated options” can also be related to Suassure´s notion of language as an interrelated system of signs.

I see, but read comments above. Not everything in Halliday is lexemes.

I would like to add that, from my point of view, Bakhtin´s statement does not share the same idea with Halliday. I believe that the former concentrates on the sentence in general and the latter does it on lexemes. For me, they are quite different.

Not quite so. Read feedback above. What you may probably say is that Halliday ends up concentrating on the syntax of language all the same.

As regards what Eliana posted of Benveniste, can we relate that selection of options to modalization?? Because modalization, among other things, is a selection of vocabulary, isn´t it?
Question

That's right.
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javiers



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PostSubject: Re: 02) Act of speech   Fri Oct 17, 2008 11:30 pm

I find a strong relationship between the notion of choices as quoted above by the girls and Jakobson's metaphoric and metonimic poles.
It is surprising that the speaker handles the elements of language in such way that in doing so he adds more meaning and intention than by just assembling different pieces regardless of the organization and context. In Halliday's words, "Speech acts thus involve the creative and repetitive exercise of options in social and personal situations and settings." Then, options are consistent not only at the level of constituents but beyond - from the morpheme or phoneme to the suprasegmental features, body language, eye contact, discourse as a whole and sociocultural constraints within us as subjects shaped by society.

I see, but where do you see the relation w/Jakobson's poles?

An act of speech, as Halliday proposes, is a simultaneous selection from among a large number of interrelated options, all of which represent the "meaning potential" of language. This definition takes us to the metonymic and mataphoric poles in the sense that they are the two basic forms of arranging verbal or written behaviour. Both through equivalence or contiguity, selection or combination, the language user taps on this complex interplay to define a speech chain that will possibly imply not only a linear collection of system elements but the imprint of the speaker's subjective intention or experience of the world, as well.


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micaela g



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PostSubject: Re: 02) Act of speech   Sun Oct 19, 2008 5:26 pm

"Act of speech" : A simultaneous selection from among a large number of interrelated options.
Bakhtin: In his essay he mentioned two kinds of genre: the primary and the secondary ones. The former consists of language of everyday interaction-written or oral- i.e everyday speech. In this kind of genre the speaker, while performing a speech act, is able to choose whether to make a pause, to speak literary or not, to interrupt, to emphasize something, to choose a specific word for that moment, to make a gesture ... etc

Crystal: As we know, people adopt a " cooperative principle" when they communicate: they try to get along with "maxims" that underlie the efficient use of language. Such maxims are: maxim of quality, maxim of quantity, maxim of relevance, maxim of manner. Again, it's the speaker's choice to follow them or not. For example he may tell a lie and violate the maxim of quality, or he may say things that are not relevant to the topic in discussion, violating the maxim of relevance.
In addition, another choice the addresser has is to speak by using an indirect speech act, for eg, in orden to be polite.

Grice: He expossed that "Any speaker can opt out of (i.e suspend) the co-operative principle, tacitly or overtly. Any speaker can accidentally or deliberately violate a maxim" This means that in any act of speach, the speaker may select from different options. (whether to violate the maxims or not) king

So, what's you point?
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MarinaP



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PostSubject: Re: Act of speech   Fri Oct 24, 2008 1:51 pm

I strongly agree with most of the comments above.

I would also like to add the notion of Speaker's plan or speech will presented by Bakhtin Question . The speaker's plan or speech will are all the individual and subjective choices that any speaker makes in any act of speech. This plan determines both the choice of the subject itself as well as its boundaries and its semantic exhaustiveness.

I relate this to the fact that we, as speakers, are always making choices and that these options represent the "meaning potential" of language. Besides, these options are selected in the context of speech situations.

(I'm still working on some other ideas but I wanted to post one of them at least).
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MarianelaB



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PostSubject: Re: 02) Act of speech   Fri Oct 24, 2008 6:25 pm

After reflecting on the idea of the act of speech as a simultaneous selection from among a large number of interrelated options, we could relate it to Saussure’s paradigmatic relations since the speaker makes a selection out of all the paradigms which operate in absentia in the vertical axis.

I Would also relate it to the metonymic pole in the sense that we can substitute one paradigm for another out of a process of selection on the base of equivalence, similarity, dissimilarity, synonymity or antonymity. On these basis, we realize how they are interrelated.
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